December 2022 Vol 2 Issue II

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Dipamkumar Raval, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2). Dr. Jayeshkumar R. Vasava, Dr. Subhash Mahila Arts, Commerce & Home Science College, , Junagadh, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Organizational citizenship behaviour, personality, and leadership are some of the terms to consider here.

Abstract :


By conducting a review of research journals that have been published in the past ten years, the objective of this literature review is to investigate the factors that influence organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). This will be accomplished through the use of an abstract. Academia, Google Scholar, and EBSCO are the three sources that are used to access journals. The findings demonstrate that not all aspects of a person's personality have either a good or a negative link with OCB. There is some evidence that transformational leadership can boost organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), but this connection is also mediated by interactional justice and can be controlled by psychological empowerment. In addition, Employee Engagement and Organizational Commitment with Person-Environment Interaction are characteristics that have the potential to influence OCB (P-E). On the other hand, gender does not play a role in OCB.


No of Downloads : 25

Author (s) :


1). Mrs. Pritha Gawande, Centre for distance and online education, Bharati Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2). Mrs. Shilpa Gawande, Centre for distance and online education, Bharati Vidyapeeth , Pune, Maharashtra, India

Keywords :


Abstract :


The modern world is now a digital one. India is working to adopt electronic payments. A payment system using an electronic network is known as an electronic payment system. In other words, an e-payment is a way for a person to make Online Payments for his or her purchase of products and services, regardless of place or time, without physically transferring cash or checks. India is currently going through a phase of demonetization, hence in the current context it is essential to handle the e-business environment by making electronic payments whenever you want using the internet. The purpose of this study was to identify the problems and difficulties with electronic payment systems and to suggest some improvements. E-payment system offers various threats in addition to greater opportunities.


No of Downloads : 14

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Riddhi Adthakkar, B.H.Gardi College of Engineering and Technology, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Behavioural Finance, Herding, Loss Aversion, Mental Accounting, Over-confidence.

Abstract :


Behavioural Finance deals with analysis of several psychological and cognitive factors that influence decision making of investors while investing. It considers investors psychology while making investment decisions by considering the most basic fact that human decisions are sentimental driven. It denies the hypothesis of rational decision making and lists out the psychological biases like herding, overconfidence, mental accounting, loss aversion etc. The present study explores the influence of these biases on investment decisions. This study tries to find the correlation between these biases and investment performance. Also, tries to know the significant difference on average score of behavioural biases based on variables like age, job experience and investment experience of an individual. Primary data would be collected using questionnaires from the investors in the Rajkot city.


No of Downloads : 8

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Tithi Thaker, R K University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2). Dr. Manish Thaker, Shree M.T Dhamsania Commerce & B.B.A College, , Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Online Shopping Value; Offline Shopping Value; Channel Choice Behaviour.

Abstract :


This study examines how shoppers assess channels for their buying. In particular, it fosters an applied model that tends to a buyer esteem view of utilizing the Internet versus the customary i.e. physical channel. View of value, item quality, administration quality and hazard unequivocally impact apparent worth and buy goals in the disconnected and online channel. Proposed study will be helpful to retailer for their channel migration and it will beneficial to consumer for proper channel choice on the base of shopping value. Results might show the presentation of directs in conveying worth to buyers and how worth is built in the two channels. Perceptual contrasts among on the web and disconnected customers can disclose the inspirations to receive a specific channel. Researcher might think about rates as engaging measurable instruments while Chi-square will be an inferential factual apparatus.


No of Downloads : 6

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Kana R. Odedra, Shri H. N. Doshi Arts and R. N. Doshi Commerce College, Wankaner, Gujarat, India
2). Dr. Harish M. Chandarana, Shri H. N. Doshi Arts and R. N. Doshi Commerce College, Wankaner, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Altman Z score, ANOVA, Financial Health, NSE Nifty 500.

Abstract :


Automobile sector is one of largest market in India as well as in the world. In this paper researcher check financial health of randomly selected five automobile companies. This paper based on purely secondary source of data and took five financial years for study vis 2015-’16 to 2019-’20. Researcher has been used statistical tools like Altman z score and ANOVA for the study. It has been found that financial health of automobile sector is not sound in last year of study compare to initial year of study. In last year of the study most of companies z score comes from safe zone to grey zone or distress zone except Eicher Motor and Sundram Fasteners


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Chaitany Sangani, Department of Commerce, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2). Dr. Harish M. Chandarana, Shri H. N. Doshi Arts and R. N. Doshi Commerce College, Wankaner, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Behavioural Finance, Efficient Market Hypothesis, Present Value

Abstract :


Investment is an activity whereby fund is placed in some opportunity or instrument with the expectation of increase in its value and positive returns. The main investment goals are increasing the rate of return and reducing the risk. Investment in India can be broadly classified into two categories- Risky asset class and Risk – free asset class. Risky asset class includes direct equities, mutual fund, life insurance, commodities and real estate. Risk – free asset class encompasses fixed deposit, NSC, post office, PPF and bonds. Present paper is a study to find how demographic factors affect the investment behaviour.


No of Downloads : 5

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Aniruddhsinh Parmar, Darshan Institute of Management, Gondal, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Viral Raval, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Training and Development, Employee performance, Satisfaction level of Employee.

Abstract :


In the FMCG industry at global level, the business environment has changed with intense pressure on organizations, to become ‘Learning Organizations’ and stay ahead of their competitions by bringing innovation/reinvention in training and development strategy while emphasizing on planning, designing, implementing and evaluating the training programs. Carry out an analysis that the objective of training and development is to create learning organizations which ensure that employees through value addition can effectively perform their jobs, gain competitive advantage and seek self-growth: this measurable performance resulting from good training and development, shall enhance organizational performance.


No of Downloads : 1

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Ayushi Kansara, Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarati, India
2). Prof. Rutu Padhiyar, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


strength, weakness, CAMELS, HFFC.

Abstract :


This research paper is about the financial analysis of home first finance company India Ltd. Through CAMELS model. The aim of the study is to identify the strength and weak of HFFC.the review of literature play very vital role. The data collection tool was secondary data collection. This research includes Last 4-year data. Study include P&L account and balance sheet of HFFC. The analysis is done through the different ratios of different parameters of the CAMELS.


No of Downloads : 2

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Devangi Chhanga, Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Prashant Kachhela, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Comparison, E-banking services, Customer satisfaction, HDFC Bank, AXIS Bank

Abstract :


This research is a comparative study on E-banking services of HDFC Bank and AXIS Bank. The main objective of this study is to identify the customer satisfaction on E-banking services of HDFC Bank and AXIS Bank and also identify the awareness on electronic banking services. The sample size of the study was 65 and primary data collected by the questionnaire in Morbi city. In this study was applied Non probability sampling method and used to chi-square test. So, the result shows customers of HDFC and AXIS Bank are satisfied with E-banking services.


No of Downloads : 2

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Dharmishtha Dabhi, Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarat, India
2). Dr. Dhaval Vyas, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Bank of Baroda, Financial Performance, Ratio Analysis, Investment

Abstract :


important aim is a Bank of Baroda is a main public area financial institution, the large wide variety of patron are taking the diverse banking facility. It is crucial to analyses the economic Position of Bank of Baroda. In this take a look at tried to analyzed the investment sample of Bank of Baroda. Bank of Baroda is committed to provide all offerings to patron with disabilities without discrimination. In this research is assessment is based mostly on Ratio Analysis. In this measure a overall performance of company via a Balance sheet and P & L Account. Balance sheet and P & L account the use of a Ratio evaluation measure to Bank of Baroda. After this observe concludes a Bank of Baroda should take crucial steps to boom the share of earning through growing lending to company and massive clients. BOB growth the proportion of mortgage quantity on the fixed deposits.


No of Downloads : 1

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Dhruvi Sanadiya, Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarat, India
2). Dr Navjyot Raval , Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Non-banking companies, Home First Finance company, Aavas Finance company, financial performance, Financial Ratio,

Abstract :


: A Non-Banking financial company is an accompanist in the business of giving credits to its customers but does not have any right of receiving any type of deposits from customers as per the guidelines of the reserve bank of India these things create differences between banking companies and NBFC. This paper is about the financial performance of Two non-banking financial companies.The companies are Home First Finance company and Aavas Finance company. This paper uses different types of ratios to measure financial performance. Use financial statement of both companies and compare overall financial performance of both Home First Finance company and Aavas finance company.


No of Downloads : 2

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Jignesh Yadav, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Ram Bharada, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Awareness, Home Loan, Shop Loan, Saurashtra Region, HFFC

Abstract :


This study is about on awareness of Home Loan and Shop Loan of HFFC among the people of Saurashtra region. This study major aim to determine the people awareness about the Home Loan and Shop Loan of Home First Finance Company India Ltd. In this research paper the review of literature is also paly very vital role. The research data was taken in both manner primary as well as secondary data. The sample size of t his research paper is 120 people of saurashtra region. The tool for the data collection was Questionnaire method, convince sampling is used in the research paper. The Research design of this paper is descriptive analysis. Data analyses was done in SPSS Statistical tool through ANOVA method.


No of Downloads : 1

Author (s) :


1). MS. Jimisha Sheth, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Viral Raval, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Job satisfaction, satisfaction & performance

Abstract :


This study is about job satisfaction of employees at GOPAL SNACKS PVT. LTD This study has major aim is to find out is there any impact of satisfaction on performance and also helpful in various other ways like to determine to understand job satisfaction level of employees in food industries, identify work characteristics will have a positive relationship with job satisfaction, study the impact of job satisfaction on the overall growth of employees as well as the objectives. for that questionnaire though data were collected and by applying chi-square test for hypotheses testing, derived the conclusion that there is direct relationship between satisfaction and performance.


No of Downloads : 1

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Kiran Vaghela , Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Prashant Kachhela, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Mutual fund, Consumer behaviour, individual perception, awareness

Abstract :


: Mutual fund is demanded in market in current era. Investors are like to invest in mutual fund for more safety of risk and return. This paper is about the individual perception and consumer behaviour in mutual fund. mutual fund is famous between the youngster, they invest in mutual fund because to tax saving and moderate risk/return. Every investor must have total information and awareness about every financial security. This paper is also about awareness of investor in mutual fund. Literature review is also important for paper for primary as well as secondary data of topic. This paper takes primary data of 60 respondent. The data tool for data collection was Questionnaire method, convince sampling method is used for research of this paper. Excel statistical tool used for Chi-square test.


No of Downloads : 2

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Nehal Makwana, Darshan Institute of Management, Gondal, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Kinjal Thaker, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


recruitment, selection, factors, organization policy

Abstract :


The variance factors are affect on recruitment and selection process now a days direct, indirect, positive, and negative, from the view point of employee as well as the employer. This paper is about the factors affect on recruitment and selection process followed at the Bhavani industries India LLP at Rajkot. For any company their workforce is competitive advantage. Literature review is also one of the important factor to search any things the research data was taken in both manner primary as well as secondary data. The source of primary data was 75 employees working in the Bhavani Industries India LLP. The tool for the data collection was Questionnaire method, convince sampling is used in the research paper. SPSS Statistical tool use co relation test.


No of Downloads : 1

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Nikita Sumad, Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Krina Anadkat, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


work life balance, Insplore TLS , Employee, Job

Abstract :


This study is about employees work life balance at INSPLORE TLS company ltd Delhi. This study majors aim to employees work life balance. And aware about how many employees balance work life balance employees for that purpose questionnaires were different problem and questionnaires design by different collect primary data form employees of the company. Here researcher was taken main objective employees to identify the factors the employee work life balance. To know the relationship between employees’ job and its impact on employee’s personal life. To know the relationship between the supervisor’s support and employee job performance. after testing Anova single factor and conclude that most of employees not balance work life.


No of Downloads :

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Sneha Chhotala , Darshan Institute of Management, Gondal, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Kinjal Thaker, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Candidate, LLP, Employee, Recruitment, Selections.

Abstract :


From the few years originations are believe that theire employee are their assets not a liabilities. Now a days the word recruitment and selection is take in the very positive manners, by both recruiter as well as candidate. This paper think about the recruitment and selection process followed at the Bhavani industries India LLP at Rajkot. For any company their workforce is competitive advantage. In this research paper the review of literature is also paly very vital role. The research data was taken in both manner primary as well as secondary data. The source of primary data was 75 employees working in the Bhavani Industries India LLP. The tool for the data collection was Questionnaire method, convince sampling is used in the research paper. Data analyses was done in SPSS Statistical tool through chai square method.


No of Downloads : 1

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Sonali Nakum, Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Rutu Padhiyar, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Perception about Home First, People, Product, Services, Facilities.

Abstract :


This study is about people perception of Home First Finance Company India Ltd. At Morbi region. This study has major aim to determine the people perception about Home First different services, for that purpose design a questionnaire and on the basis of that primary data were collected from peoples of the Morbi region. Here researcher was taken many perceptions level like perception regarding product, perception regarding facilities, perception regarding services, perception regarding system, perception regarding safety were all about putted off in questionnaire and all the respondent express their opinion on those statement. After a collecting a wall data and analysis is done and applied a chi-square test. The hypothesis is accepted the result of the hypothesis is no significance difference in people perception towards home first.


No of Downloads :

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Trupti Gohel, Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarat, India
2). Dr Navjyot Raval , Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


NBFC, HFCs, Comparison, Financial Performance, Ratio Analysis.

Abstract :


In this study measure and compare a financial performance of HFFC and AHFL. This study’s major aim is a HFFC and AHFL both NBFIs Financial position compare and which company is better for the Indian economy. This study main purpose is financial performance check using a ratio. In this study used a secondary data of a both companies. In this measure a performance of both company through a balance sheet and P & L account. Balance Sheet and P & L A/C using a Ratio analysis measure both companies. After this study concludes a HFFC and AHFL in a Home First’s financial position are better compare to the Aadhar Housing. The suggestion of this study is Aadhar are improving their financial strength Home First are improving their finance scheme and gave better performance.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Umang Meva, Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Viral Chavda, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Employees’ satisfaction, Work Environment, Compensation & Benefits, Training & Development, HFFC, Employees’ problems & expectation

Abstract :


This study is about employee satisfaction of Home First Finance Company India Ltd. (Saurashtra Region). This study has major aim to determine the employee level of the satisfaction and to be aware about the different Problems and the expectation of the employees for that purpose questionnaires were design and on the basis of that primary data were collected from the employees of the company. Here researcher was taken three main dimensions into consideration such as work environment, compensation & benefits, training & Development and the different statements about all three dimensions were putted off in questionnaire and all the respondents express their opinion on those statements. After that coding and tabulation of the data were done and on that different test were applied anova and independent sample t-test for testing the hypothesis and as result got the conclusion that the most of the employees are satisfied at HFFC and there is no impact of any demographic factors on satisfaction of employees.


No of Downloads : 2

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Yash Luniyatar, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Ram Bharada, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Consumer awareness, Loan

Abstract :


The purpose of this paper is to determine the consumer awareness towards Home first finance products at Rajkot region. Data for investigation were collected from primary source. The sampling method is convent sampling method. The data or information is gathered from the Questionnaire. After the data or information is collect they wall data is analyse through ANOVA with the help of SPSS software.


No of Downloads : 6

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Tanzirraza Kadivar, Darshan Institute of Management, Morbi, Gujarat, India
2). Dr. Dhaval Vyas, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Strength, weakness, 4P’s of marketing, Insplore consultancy

Abstract :


This study about the marketing strategies of Insplore consultants pvt.ltd. Company. Through 4P’s of marketing. This study major aim to identified the strength and weakness of Insplore consultants pvt.ltd. In this research paper the review of literature is also play very vital role. The data collection of this research paper was secondary data. Current observation data was taken in this research paper. The Exploratory research is used in this research paper. The analysis is done through the 4P’s of marketing. The data type of this research is quantitative data.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Prof. Bhavin Joshi, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Prashant Kachhela, Darshan Institute of Management, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
3). Ms. Krishna Thakkar, NA, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


learner characteristics, transfer of training

Abstract :


Organizations across sectors and industries spend significant budget on training and development programs. Organization’s expect training programs to translate into quality performance at workplace. Organizations also expect good return on training investment. It is essential that employees implement their learning of training programs at workplace. We have made an attempt to understand the factors that impact transfer of training. During our review process we identified few variables that influence transfer of training with research support. Out of many variables like organization’s culture, trainer’s effectiveness, training infrastructure, training interventions, learning resources and others, we have identified learners’ characteristics as a parameter to understand impact on transfer of training.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Pankti Pandya, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2). Dr. Manish B. Raval, SDRB Mahila Home Sci. Lt. M. J. Kundaliya Eng. Med. Mahila Commerce College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Investment, Perception, Bank Employees, t-test, ANOVA

Abstract :


Investors are crucial to the financial market. The perception of risk and return by the investor influences their decision-making and choice of investments. The goal of the current study was to gauge bank workers' attitudes regarding investing. For the study, 150 bank workers were chosen as a sample. The goal of the current study is to quantify the relationship between numerous demographic characteristics and investment perception. Researchers used the t-test and One-way ANOVA to assess the relationship between demographic variables and investment perception. The study found that while employee position in the bank had no bearing on investment opinion, age and education had a substantial impact.


No of Downloads : 9

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Darshan - The International Journal of Commerce and Management (DIJCM) (ISSN : 2583-1682) (Online) is an open access peer-reviewed international journal publishing high-quality articles related to all domains of Commerce and Management.

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